Here, on a 156-meter rocky hill with a flat top, a few thousand years BC.
Here, on a 156-meter rocky hill with a flat top, a few thousand years BC.
Actually, in the seventeenth century. in the Commonwealth there is such a thing as a magnate system of fortresses [5, p. 108].
The basic criterion for the location of magnate castles was their attachment to specific estates of a magnate, which could be scattered throughout the state.
The transition to a bastion system of defense construction made it possible to change the concept of internal construction of castle buildings, allowed to experiment with the composition of residential premises, which now performed not only a defensive but also a representative function. Renaissance elements began to penetrate into defense construction in the previous century (Low Castle in Lviv). Now, with the participation of engineers and builders of European origin, who were invited to the service of Polish magnates, castles are transformed into Renaissance country palaces [2, p. 96].
Since then, the fashion for comfortable and representative interiors (Pidhirtsi) has been established for a long time. The walls are beginning to be decorated with wallpaper, gilded upholstery and tapestries. The vaults are now decorated with decor and the floors with colored parquet. Everywhere is dominated by silver, gold and precious inlays, which had a perfect artistic value [6, p. 28]. Along with the defense complexes there are gardens arranged according to the best European models (Pidhirtsi, Zhovkva), and in some places – menageries (Zhovkva).
In the XVII century. the latest trends in European urban planning are spreading in these areas. Along with the reconstruction of medieval cities, new ones were laid, which imitated the theoretical projects of the so-called „ideal cities“ [4, p. 7]. The most common in Europe during the Renaissance was the concept of a radial city with a clearly defined center [1, p. 25]. On the territory of the modern Lviv region, these trends were implemented primarily on the example of the cities of Brody and Zhovkva.
The decline of the bastion system of defense construction in the late XVIII century. it was partly caused by the socio-political circumstances that developed in the region after the first partition of the Rzeczpospolita, partly by the defensive unsuitability of the existing castle complexes and the change of landmarks in military engineering.
That is, the example of Lviv region clearly shows that the development of defense architecture did not take place separately from public life, but rather – in parallel with it. The slightest changes in people’s consciousness and their understanding of the world instantly found expression in defense architecture.
If the evolution of firearms and the expansion of methods of warfare were caused by the emergence of theoretical projects of better fortifications, the circumstances of political or economic life of the region were the catalyst for the implementation of these projects.
1. Cargo I. Theory of the city. – M., 1972. – 247 p.
2. Research on the history of architecture and urban planning / Under. ed. A. Bunin, N. Brunov. – M., 1964 .– 284 p.
3. History of Ukrainian culture: In 5 vols. – Vol. 2. – Kyiv, 2001. – http: // www. chronicle. org. ua / istkult2 / ikult205. htm.
4. Topilko S. Architectural and planning structure of the towns of Galicia, laid in the second half of the XVI – XVII centuries .: Abstract dis. Cand. architecture: 18.02. 03 / Lviv Polytechnic National University. – Lviv, 2003 .– 18 p.
5. Dubaś B. Fortece Rzeczypospolitej. A study of the works of the fortified building of the Polish-Lithuanian Empire in the 17th century. – Toruń, 1998 .– 436 p.
6. Jurasz T. Traps and their secrets. – Warszawa, 1972 .– 259 p.
7. Kaiser L. Castles and society. Przemiany architecture and construction of the defense in Poland in the X – XVIII century. – Łódź, 1993 .– 267 p.
The Acropolis of Athens as a monument of ancient Greek culture. Abstract
The Acropolis of Athens is a famous monument of great ancient Greek culture, an open-air museum. Here, on a 156-meter rocky hill with a flat top, a few thousand years BC. BC settled the first inhabitants of Attica
For hundreds of centuries, the place was not the heart of ancient Greece, its sanctuary and pride. Another one and a half millennium BC. temples and palaces were built on the Acropolis. Time, wars and the elements destroyed them, and people rebuilt them again. Only the silent stones, which have long been buried under later buildings, are witnesses to those events.
For Greece in the V century BC. BC came a period of long wars with the Persians. The first victory of the Greeks at the Marathon (490 BC) raised their fighting spirit, instilled faith and hope. In her honor, the genius sculptor Phidias cast a majestic bronze statue of Athena Promachos from the trophies seized from the Persians, which shone with the splendor of his spear and helmet from the top of the hill.
Winged by victory, the Greeks laid the foundation of the future temple of Athena – marble, instead of the ancient limestone. But they still had to defeat the Persians, who attacked again and again, capturing and plundering Athens several times. The Persians left the Acropolis in ruins, destroying all its buildings. And then the Greeks solemnly swore: to restore the Acropolis only when the invaders can be overcome and expelled from Greece, and until then – let the spectacle of ruins always reminds them of the lawlessness of the barbarians.
Finally, in the 70s BC. BC, came the long-awaited victory, peace was made, and from the war Greece emerged as a strong maritime power, where prosperity and prosperity prevailed. In the middle of the V century BC. Pericles, an unsurpassed orator, gifted, and wise ruler, was elected leader of Athenian democracy (strategist).
He gathered in Athens representatives of all Greek peoples to discuss the construction of new buildings on the Acropolis, which would be worthy of the goddess of Athens and the great victory of the Greeks. Fortunately, it was at this time that a rich marble deposit was discovered near Athens, which had previously been brought in small quantities from the islands.
The construction was led by Pericles (became, in modern language, the project manager), and helped him (that is, did everything else – served as chief architect, chief engineer and chief artist) sculptor Phidias, a friend of Pericles, who by that time had created many beautiful sculptures and temples.
In a fantastically short time (there were no cranes or dump trucks then!), The Greeks built the ensemble of the Acropolis: the main entrance to the Propylaea (437-432 BC, architect Mnesikl), the temple of Nike Apteros (449- 420 BC). AD, architect Callicratus), the main temple of the Acropolis and Athens – the Parthenon (447-438 pp. BC, architects Ictinus and Callicratus), the temple of Erechtheion (421-406 pp. BC, the architect is unknown)).
The Acropolis rose above all Athens, the silhouette of the Parthenon in ancient times could be seen from anywhere in Attica and even from the islands. During the holidays, solemn processions of Athenians went to the Acropolis. Before the entrance they were met by a small and elegant temple of Nike Apteros – the temple of the Wingless Victory.
Most often, the Greek goddess of victory was depicted with wings. This time she was made wingless – so that she could never leave Athens again and stay here forever. The procession passed the majestic Propylaea – a complex colonnade with five passages. On the side, separated by a wall, was a small room called the Pinakothek. Here were kept paintings donated to the goddess Athena.
We know about their content from ancient Greek descriptions: they were mythological stories that glorified the exploits of heroes and gods. The word Pinakothek, which literally means „storage of boards“ (because the paintings were then painted with paints on the boards), was later called an art gallery. By the way, in ancient Greece it was customary to dedicate and give the gods works of art, and many sculptures stood along the road, as well as on the steps of temples.
So, after passing the Propylaea, the procession entered the sacred territory. Here stood a bronze statue of Athena Promachos (Warrior) – the same one cast by Phidias from Persian trophies. It has not survived to the present day – only a fragment of the pedestal remains. Behind the Warrior was seen Erechtheion – the temple of Athena and Poseidon, built on the site of a dispute between these gods for possession of Attica.
The temple is not quite familiar to the Greeks – asymmetrical: all three of its porticos are located on different levels. In one of them, instead of columns, there are figures of caryatids (priestesses of Artemis). In this temple was a sacred to the Greeks wooden statue of Athena – Palladium, which, according to legend, itself fell from the sky. In the courtyard of Erechtheion grew a sacred oil donated to the city of Athena, and from the rock was a salt spring carved with his trident Poseidon.
And finally, the Parthenon itself – the main temple of the Acropolis. The Parthenon, dedicated to Athena Parthenos, Athena the Healer, impresses with its perfect beauty. No wonder its construction was considered a miracle – both because it was completed so quickly, and because its grandeur and beauty were perceived as a consequence of the intervention of the goddess.
The Parthenon building is surrounded by an Doric colonnade. The columns are slightly narrowed at the top, have a slightly thickened middle part, and therefore seem light and elastic. Pediment, cornices, columns – of marble, and the roof – of wood. The pediment and cornices adorned numerous statues; at the top, at a height of 12 meters along the outer walls stretched Ionic frieze.
The skill of its creators is impressive: during the entire length of the frieze – which is about 160 m – there is no repetition, and it depicts not only gods and heroes, but also real Athenian citizens. It is not known exactly which of the sculptors worked on the frieze, but in his plots, the skill of execution is felt by Phidias, buy a comparison and contrast essay cheap who apparently directed this work. In the temple stood another statue of Athena by Phidias.
The skeleton of the 12-meter figure was made of wood, the arms, legs and face were made of painted ivory, and the clothes were made of gold of different shades (such statues, made of ivory and gold, are called chrysoelephantine). Many reduced copies of this statue have been made, and only thanks to them can we imagine it today, because in the V century AD. The Parthenon became the Church of Our Lady, and the statue of Athena Parthenos by Phidias was transported to Constantinople, where it was lost.
Today, the ruins of the Parthenon are a symbol of human culture and creative genius. And also – a symbol of the destructive offensive of civilization.
After the conquest of Greece by the Turks in the XV century. the temple was turned into a mosque, to which minarets were added, and then used as a powder warehouse. Erechtheion became the harem of the Turkish pasha, the temple of Nike Apteros was dismantled, and the walls of the bastion were made of its stones.